Home Fitness I Had Epic Workouts On Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout (2024 Review)
I Had Epic Workouts On Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout (2024 Review)
0

I Had Epic Workouts On Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout (2024 Review)

0
0

Finding a pre-workout that actually works to improve performance is quite tricky. The majority depend on caffeine, which is the primary component producing results. However, Transparent Labs has taken it a notch further by dosing every ingredient according to what has been found effective in research.

Let me show you why this supplement works and how it stacks up to similar products.

Pros

  • One of the largest serving sizes to provide the necessary doses for each ingredient to function.
  • A combination of performance and nootropic substances that provide physical and mental benefits.
  • Multiple flavors can satisfy any taste.
  • Banned substances are examined to ensure you do not test positive during a random drug test.
  • Subscription option for price reduction.

Cons

  • It is a more costly pre-workout, but the price tag reflects the high quality.
  • There is an underdosing of certain nootropic ingredients.

Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout

Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout

Efficaciously dosed pre-workout with a large serving size to give you performance-enhancing benefits from multiple ingredients.

CHECK CURRENT DEALS
Transparent Labs Bulk Pre Workout Supplement

Who Are Transparent Labs

Transparent Labs specializes in sports nutrition supplements. They sell various products, including pre-workout formulae, muscle-building and recovery supplements, protein powders, and health and wellness goods.

Their products are known for being made using scientific evidence and free of artificial sweeteners and coloring.

They use natural and grass-fed ingredients and have their products third-party lab-tested to verify quality.

Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout Ingredients

IngredientDose
Citrulline Malate 2:18000 mg
Beta-Alanine4000 mg
Betaine Anhydrous2500 mg
Taurine1300 mg
L-Tyrosine1000 mg
Alpha-GPC300 mg
Organic Caffeine200 mg
L-Theanine200 mg
Theobromine50 mg
Panax Ginseng50 mg
Bioperine5 mg
Boron3000 mcg

Citrulline Malate 2:1 (8000 mg)

Transparent Labs Bulk Pre Workout Review

The majority of pre-workout pills contain little more than three to six grams of L-Citrulline. The 8 grams of L-Citrulline in Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout is more than enough to boost your lifting performance right away [1]. So, how does L-Citrulline function exactly?

The famous NO Explode pre-workout aimed to raise blood flow and nitric oxide levels, improving muscle endurance, resistance to fatigue, and recovery time after exercise [1].

While exercising, nitric oxide may reduce oxygen and ATP requirements while increasing the aerobic powerhouse’s ATP production capacity.

By using L-Arginine, which is converted into nitric oxide, NO Explode aimed to increase nitric oxide production.

However, due to poor absorption in the stomach, the evidence does not support the claim that L-Arginine increases nitric oxide activity.

This is why L-Citrulline is a highly effective supplement ingredient.

L-Citrulline is a precursor to L-Arginine, and converting it to L-Arginine solves the kidney absorption problem.

This boosts the concentration of L-Arginine, which converts to nitric oxide and gives the benefits listed above.

You may wonder why Citrulline Malate 2:1 is listed in the ingredients instead of L-Citrulline.

Interestingly, malate works synergistically with citrulline, perhaps increasing ATP synthesis, lowering lactic acid, and extending weariness. It is great for those looking to increase their reps in the gym.

Taking 8 g of Citrulline Malate 60 minutes before exercise increases repetitions to failure in both the upper and lower body, reduces muscular soreness 24 and 48 hours later, and improves maximal grip strength [1].

For those interested in endurance, ingesting 6g of Citrulline Malate daily for seven days shortens the time to exhaustion during moderate-intensity cycling [2].

Doses as low as 2.4g per day for seven days increased the time to completion and power output when cycling 4 kilometers.

Furthermore, compared to a placebo, sensations of muscle fatigue improved after exercise [3].

If you want to up the 8 g dose, couple your Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout with fresh watermelon or juice. Watermelon is a natural source of L-Citrulline, with 0.7-3.6 mg per gram of fresh weight.

Beta-Alanine (4000 mg)

The next active component is beta-alanine, which is included in a dose of 4 g per serving.

Acute performance effects are noticeable at doses of 30 mg per kilogram of body weight 60 minutes before exercise, making this Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout perfect for most people, as you’d have to weigh more than 130 kg to miss this dose.

Beta-alanine prolongs the time you can exercise at high intensity for 1-4 minutes [4][5].

For example, if you were running an 800m race, you could maintain a higher intensity throughout the race, improving your 800m performance.

How does it do this? Beta-alanine causes a rise in carnosine levels. During high-intensity exercise, carnosine either buffers or removes hydrogen ions accumulating in the muscle.

The hydrogen ions in the muscle produce an acidic environment. An acidic muscular environment causes fatigue because it reduces the muscle’s ability to contract.

By buffering or removing these hydrogen ions, the muscle’s pH remains neutral for longer, hence extending fatigue.

Citrulline Malate and Beta-Alanine work together to allow you to accomplish many more reps in the gym, resulting in enhanced muscular growth.

A recent systematic review of beta-alanine supplementation in combat sports discovered that athletes enhanced their strength, power, total work capacity, perception of recovery from physical exertion, lean mass, and fat mass [6].To develop endurance, aim for 179 g over 3-10 weeks [7].

Betaine Anhydrous (2500 mg)

Transparent Labs Bulk Preworkout

Transparent Labs Bulk has a third active component, betaine. In a fasting condition, consuming two doses of betaine per day of 1.25 g (2.5 g total) with a sports drink increased bench press reps by 6.5% while decreasing lactate (and thereby hydrogen ions) levels [8].

The same quantity may reduce AMPK pathway participation following exercise, enhancing the anabolic (muscle development) environment [9].

During endurance exercise, the AMPK pathway is activated. It inhibits the mTOR pathway, which is important for muscle growth.

By lowering the involvement of the AMPK system, the mTOR pathway can be activated for longer periods, potentially leading to increased muscle growth.

Taurine (1300 mg)

Caffeine and taurine are best friends. The more taurine you consume, the less caffeine you need for performance benefits, and higher taurine doses equal better performance [10].

Furthermore, a single dose of 1-6 g before exercise can improve endurance performance independent of dose size [11].

L-Tyrosine (1000 mg)

As supplement companies seek a competitive advantage, nootropic substances have increasingly found their way into pre-workout formulations.

Nootropics are essentially brain vitamins. Improving your cognitive function is also known as enhancing your mental performance. This is likely why Transparent Labs incorporated L-Tyrosine.

The dietary amino acid L-tyrosine has been found to boost dopamine levels in the brain.

L-tyrosine supplementation has been shown to improve cognitive regulation in trials, especially in intellectually challenging settings [12].

It is notably helpful for increasing cognitive flexibility, which is influenced by dopamine.

While L-Tyrosine’s potential for treating clinical disorders and enhancing physical activity is limited, it can be beneficial under stressful or cognitively demanding circumstances.

It provides the greatest cognitive benefits when neurotransmitter activity is normal, but dopamine and norepinephrine levels are temporarily reduced [13].

According to studies, the best dose for cognitive improvement begins at 2 grams.

Unfortunately, Bulk includes only 1 g each serving, which could reduce its effectiveness.

Alpha GPC (300 mg)

The choline-containing phospholipid alpha GPC improves cognitive function in neurological conditions like dementia [14].

According to studies, it increases memory and concentration, which may benefit brain health.

Clinical studies have indicated it can improve cognitive performance, especially with other treatments like donepezil [15].

It is generally safe and well tolerated. The amino acid alpha GPC increases the brain’s acetylcholine levels, which are required for memory and learning [16].

It is used as both a medicine and a nutritional supplement. Alpha GPC enhances cognitive performance, particularly in cases of adult-onset dementia [17].

However, 200 mg of Alpha GPC may improve vertical jump performance comparably to coffee [18].

Organic Caffeine (200 mg)

Transparent Labs Bulk vs Bulk Black

Caffeine is a powerful substance that boosts power and sprint performance by 6.5% and increases the number of reps performed when lifting by 9.4% [19].

It also improves endurance performance by 2.22% in time trials and 2.9% in power output compared to a placebo [20].

Caffeine doses vary between 3 and 6 mg per kilogram of body weight, with every dosage in this range increasing performance.

Lower caffeine levels of <3 Mg/kg body mass (about 200 mg) found in Transparent Labs Bulk may be effective for some people [21][22].

L-Theanine (200 mg)

L-Theanine has a reputation for boosting mental health, with studies demonstrating that daily doses of 200-400 mg help reduce stress and anxiety [23][24].

The caffeine L-theanine stack improves both physical and cognitive function.

Some benefits include faster reaction time, faster visual processing speed, improved working memory, enhanced awareness, and reduced exhaustion and mental fatigue [25][26].

The trials use a 2:1 L-theanine to caffeine ratio. Transparent Labs Bulk uses a 1:1 ratio. In my experience, utilizing any ratio works equally well.

Theobromine (50 mg)

Theobromine, a cocoa component, has been studied for its possible cognitive benefits.

According to studies, theobromine may have a slower nootropic effect than coffee, but it may provide neuroprotective benefits over time, potentially decreasing Alzheimer’s disease-related pathology [27].

More research is needed to understand its effects on cognition fully.

Theobromine appears to have different effects on mood and vigilance than coffee, with some studies indicating it may not significantly influence these traits in nutritionally relevant quantities [28].

However, combining theobromine with coffee may change its effects, potentially delivering cognitive and mood benefits while not dramatically increasing blood pressure [29].

More research is needed to confirm theobromine’s cognitive and mood-altering effects.

Transparent Labs Bulk contains 50 milligrams of theobromine. However, doses higher than 400 mg are required to improve cognition.

Panax Ginseng (50 mg)

Transparent Labs Bulk vs Lean

Panax ginseng is available in white and red varieties. It has vasodilatory and mildly hypotensive effects on nitric oxide production in the body [30].

It boosts antioxidant enzyme activity and may protect rats against oxidative damage caused by aging [31].

Ginseng has shown potential in memory enhancement, notably in age-related cognitive decline, as well as enhancing mental and physical resilience, tiredness reduction, and stress adaptation [32].

A daily 200 mg extract or 0.5 to 2 g dry root intake is advised. It is not recommended for people with acute asthma or hypertension since it might cause overstimulation and raise blood pressure at high doses.

Transparent Labs Bulk contains a 50 mg dose, which may not deliver the same mental performance benefits.

Bioperine (5 mg)

BioPerine is a patented and trademarked chemical claiming to increase nutritional absorption [33]. It’s debatable whether there is a significant effect.

Boron (3000 mcg)

Boron, a trace element not currently deemed essential for humans, has been found to affect brain function and cognitive performance.

According to research, insufficient boron consumption may result in decreased brain electrical activity, as seen in general malnutrition or heavy metal toxicity [34].

Low boron levels have also been linked to poor performance in tasks requiring manual dexterity, eye-hand coordination, attention, perception, and memory [35].

Transparent Labs is considerably below the research-defined high boron consumption of 3.25 mg boron/2000 kcal/day.

These results suggest boron may benefit brain health and cognitive capacity.

Transparent Labs Bulk Price

Transparent Labs Bulk is a premium pre-workout supplement, and the pricing reflects this. A one-time purchase costs $49.99, which equates to $1.67 per serving. With a subscription, you save $5, including free shipping, bringing the price per serving down to $1.50.

Transparent Labs Features

Transparent Labs Bulk Pre Workout Benefits

Taste And Mixability

You can choose from 12 different flavors. I tried the peach mango flavor, and like with all Transparent Labs products, the flavors are distinct and powerful.

For example, most supplement firms provide a blue raspberry-flavored product with a stock taste.

Transparent Lab’s flavors taste slightly different, which could be owing to specific flavor creation. In terms of mixability, it blends easily with no lumps, similar to how most modern pre-workouts are mixed in shaker bottles.

Third-Party Testing

Third-party testing has two purposes:

To test for contaminants and heavy metals that could harm your health and to find potential banned substances that could cause a failed drug test at a sporting competition.

You should be interested in testing for toxins in a sector unregulated by the FDA since only 8% of supplements on Amazon are tested [36].

If you are a competitive athlete, always search for the informed sport tick, which Transparent Labs Bulk has, indicating the product is free of banned substances.

What’s The Difference Between Bulk And Bulk Black?

The only difference between Bulk and Bulk Black is the 300 mg of caffeine in Bulk Black, whereas Bulk has 200 mg. All other components and dosages are the same.

Transparent Labs Bulk vs. Lean

Transparent Labs Lean has a lesser dose of the same components as Bulk (with some removed), as well as L-carnitine, choline bitartrate, and Huperzine A. Lean also contains 20 mg less caffeine than Bulk.

Transparent Laboratories Lean was created to help you lose fat. However, the extra substances are only speculative in aiding fat reduction.

Who Is Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout For?

Athletes Seeking Enhanced Performance

Bulk Pre-Workout is great for athletes looking to increase their strength, endurance, and overall athletic performance.

Because it is free of banned substances, you do not need to be concerned about popping on competition drug tests from contaminated supplements.

Individuals Focusing on Muscle Building

Those aiming to gain muscle mass may benefit from this pre-workout designed to improve gym performance.

Caffeine is the most ergogenic help in performance, and when combined with L-theanine, you get a smooth balance of energy.

Fitness Enthusiasts Needing Extra Energy

It’s appropriate for fitness enthusiasts who need an extra energy boost for their workouts, assisting in increasing focus and drive throughout exercise sessions.

My Experience With Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout

Is Transparent Labs Bulk Pre Workout Good

This supplement is the bomb.

Combined with the other pump components, the 200 mg of caffeine ensures you will power through even the most strenuous workouts. I felt amazing during my regular training routine after taking Transparent Labs Bulk.

I will warn you this pre-workout is not for you if the tingling sensation of beta-alanine is something you find unpleasant.

This pre-workout supplement contains 4 grams of beta-alanine, which is the highest single amount I am aware of.

Because the tingles are so powerful, it will literally knock your socks off. This is why taking beta-alanine in smaller dosages throughout the day is usually best.

The tingles, nevertheless, are often associated with the “working” of pre-workout supplements, so those who enjoy them will likely also enjoy this supplement.

User Reviews & Testimonials

The user reviews on the company’s website strongly support the notion you should buy this supplement if you are serious about your workouts. The Bulk pre-workout has over 4300 reviews totaling a score of 4.7/5.0. Here are a few of the reviews:

“Only pre I use. Lower amount of caffeine and still great performance”– Mary L.

“Gets you going without the jitters. Great pump. Buy some now!”– Bryan T.

“I’ve found my workout soulmate in Transparent Labs PreSeries BULK Pre-Workout! Its transparent labeling, high-quality ingredients, and fantastic flavors deliver unparalleled results. The precise blend of citrulline malate, beta-alanine, and caffeine increases my endurance and sharpens my focus. Plus, it’s free from artificial additives, cateRead more about review stating Transparent Labs PreSeries BULK: Unmatched Pre-Workout Excellence!” – Jonathan N.

Most 1-star reviews complain about shipping and customer service issues. The few concerning the actual product are usually about taste.

“Terrible taste and does not give me any energy or boost to my workouts”– Daniel O.

Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout Alternatives

Here are some great alternatives to the Transparent Labs Bulk if you want to switch things a bit or if something in this product is not agreeable with you.

Shifted Maximum Pre-Workout

Shifted Maximum Pre Workout

Shifted is a newly formed supplement company, established in 2022 and headed by Dr. Adam Gonzalez, a Ph.D. holder in Exercise Physiology. The company’s primary objective is to provide exceptional fitness supplements.

Their pre-workout supplement is notable for its generous 30 g serving size, which allows the incorporation of multiple performance-enhancing substances in optimal quantities and includes additional speculative compounds with the potential to enhance performance without any adverse effects.

The Shifted Maximum Pre-Workout supplement contains a substantial 300 mg dosage of caffeine, intended to provide mental and physical stimulation.

If you are sensitive to caffeine, this product is unsuitable for you. It also includes many identical components found in Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout.

Shifted Maximum Pre-Workout is priced higher than other pre-workouts, justified by its extensive and high-quality list of ingredients.

Shifted Maximum Pre-Workout is a highly effective and scientifically supported product that stands out due to its thorough approach to selecting and dosing ingredients. It provides substantial advantages for improving workout performance.

You can read our full in-depth breakdown in our Shifted Maximum Pre-Workout review.

Crazy Nutrition Intensive Pre-Train

Crazy Nutrition Intensive Pre-Train

The main attraction of Crazy Nutrition’s Intensive Pre-Train rests in its precisely measured ingredients, distinguishing it from numerous other pre-workout supplements that provide insufficient amounts or conceal dosages within proprietary mixes.

The essential ingredients include Citrulline Malate, Beta-Alanine, Betaine Anhydrous, Taurine, Caffeine, and Ashwagandha, all delivered in the right amounts based on research.

The flavors display a harmonious balance of sweetness and acidity, and the ability to mix the drink is excellent, even without using a blender. The pricing is reasonable, particularly when you have a subscription and the product has a 60-day refund policy.

Nevertheless, there are a few disadvantages, such as the minimal variety of flavors and the limited number of servings per container, which may not meet the needs of individuals who train more than five times per week.

You can read our full breakdown in our Crazy Nutrition Intensive Pre Train review.

Frequently Asked Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout Questions

Is Transparent Labs Legit?

Transparent Labs is a legitimate company producing a variety of supplements that have all been tested for illegal substances. Their supplements are adequately dosed to deliver performance-enhancing effects.

What Are The Benefits Of Transparent Labs Bulk

The big serving size of Transparent Labs Bulk pre-workout allows for a more effective dosage of their active components.

Additionally, there are no proprietary blends or random fillers. Finally, they examine all of their supplements for illegal substances.

Is Transparent Labs Bulk Or Bulk Black Better?

Because they contain the same components, your caffeine tolerance is the deciding factor. Transparent Labs Bulk Black is preferable if you require a greater caffeine intake of 300 mg. Transparent Labs Bulk is preferable if you prefer a smaller 200 mg dose.

Summary

Transparent Labs Bulk is one of the most well-dosed pre-workout supplements available. The price and serving size reflect its status as a premium pre-workout. If you’re serious about training, give this a try before your next workout.

Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout

Transparent Labs Bulk Pre-Workout

Efficaciously dosed pre-workout with a large serving size to give you performance-enhancing benefits from multiple ingredients.

CHECK CURRENT DEALS
Transparent Labs Bulk Pre Workout Supplement

References

  1. Gonzalez, A. M., & Trexler, E. T. (2020). Effects of citrulline supplementation on exercise performance in humans: A review of the current literature. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 34(5), 1480-1495.
  2. Bailey, S. J., Blackwell, J. R., Lord, T., Vanhatalo, A., Winyard, P. G., & Jones, A. M. (2015). l-Citrulline supplementation improves O2 uptake kinetics and high-intensity exercise performance in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology.
  3. Suzuki, T., Morita, M., Kobayashi, Y., & Kamimura, A. (2016). Oral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy trained men: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 13(1), 1-8.
  4. Hobson, R. M., Saunders, B., Ball, G., Harris, R. C., & Sale, C. (2012). Effects of ?-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino acids, 43(1), 25-37.
  5. Saunders, B., Elliott-Sale, K., Artioli, G. G., Swinton, P. A., Dolan, E., Roschel, H., … & Gualano, B. (2017). ?-alanine supplementation to improve exercise capacity and performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(8), 658-669.
  6. Fernández-Lázaro, D., Fiandor, E. M., García, J. F., Busto, N., Santamaría-Peláez, M., Gutiérrez-Abejón, E., … & Mielgo-Ayuso, J. (2023). ?-Alanine Supplementation in Combat Sports: Evaluation of Sports Performance, Perception, and Anthropometric Parameters and Biochemical Markers—A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials. Nutrients, 15(17), 3755.
  7. Hobson, R. M., Saunders, B., Ball, G., Harris, R. C., & Sale, C. (2012). Effects of ?-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino acids, 43, 25-37.
  8. Trepanowski, J. F., Farney, T. M., McCarthy, C. G., Schilling, B. K., Craig, S. A., & Bloomer, R. J. (2011). The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance-trained men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(12), 3461-3471.
  9. Apicella, J. M., Lee, E. C., Bailey, B. L., Saenz, C., Anderson, J. M., Craig, S. A., … & Maresh, C. M. (2013). Betaine supplementation enhances anabolic endocrine and Akt signaling in response to acute bouts of exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 113(3), 793-802.
  10. Souza, D. B., Del Coso, J., Casonatto, J., & Polito, M. D. (2017). Acute effects of caffeine-containing energy drinks on physical performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European journal of nutrition, 56(1), 13-27.
  11. Waldron, M., Patterson, S. D., Tallent, J., & Jeffries, O. (2018). The effects of an oral taurine dose and supplementation period on endurance exercise performance in humans: a meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 48, 1247-1253.
  12. Steenbergen, L., Sellaro, R., Hommel, B., & Colzato, L. S. (2015). Tyrosine promotes cognitive flexibility: evidence from proactive vs. reactive control during task switching performance. Neuropsychologia, 69, 50-55.
  13. Jongkees, B. J., Hommel, B., Kühn, S., & Colzato, L. S. (2015). Effect of tyrosine supplementation on clinical and healthy populations under stress or cognitive demands—A review. Journal of psychiatric research, 70, 50-57.
  14. Traini, E., Bramanti, V., & Amenta, F. (2013). Choline alphoscerate (alpha-glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline) an old choline-containing phospholipid with a still interesting profile as cognition enhancing agent. Current Alzheimer Research, 10(10), 1070-1079.
  15. Sagaro, G. G., Traini, E., & Amenta, F. (2023). Activity of Choline Alphoscerate on Adult-Onset Cognitive Dysfunctions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, (Preprint), 1-12.
  16. Kansakar, U., Trimarco, V., Mone, P., Varzideh, F., Lombardi, A., & Santulli, G. (2023). Choline supplements: An update. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 14, 1148166.
  17. Moreno, M. D. J. M. (2003). Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical therapeutics, 25(1), 178-193.
  18. Parker, A. G., Byars, A., Purpura, M., & Jäger, R. (2015). The effects of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, caffeine or placebo on markers of mood, cognitive function, power, speed, and agility. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(sup1), P41.
  19. Astorino, T. A., & Roberson, D. W. (2010). Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(1), 257-265.
  20. Southward, K., Rutherfurd-Markwick, K. J., & Ali, A. (2018). The effect of acute caffeine ingestion on endurance performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 48(8), 1913-1928.
  21. Waller, G., Dolby, M., Steele, J., & Fisher, J. P. (2020). A low caffeine dose improves maximal strength, but not relative muscular endurance in either heavier-or lighter-loads, or perceptions of effort or discomfort at task failure in females. PeerJ, 8, e9144.
  22. Spriet, L. L. (2014). Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine. Sports medicine, 44, 175-184.
  23. Hidese, S., Ogawa, S., Ota, M., Ishida, I., Yasukawa, Z., Ozeki, M., & Kunugi, H. (2019). Effects of L-theanine administration on stress-related symptoms and cognitive functions in healthy adults: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrients, 11(10), 2362.
  24. Williams, J. L., Everett, J. M., D’Cunha, N. M., Sergi, D., Georgousopoulou, E. N., Keegan, R. J., … & Naumovski, N. (2020). The effects of green tea amino acid L-theanine consumption on the ability to manage stress and anxiety levels: A systematic review. Plant foods for human nutrition, 75, 12-23.
  25. Haskell, C. F., Kennedy, D. O., Milne, A. L., Wesnes, K. A., & Scholey, A. B. (2008). The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. Biological psychology, 77(2), 113-122.
  26. Owen, G. N., Parnell, H., De Bruin, E. A., & Rycroft, J. A. (2008). The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood. Nutritional neuroscience, 11(4), 193-198.
  27. Cova, I., Leta, V., Mariani, C., Pantoni, L., & Pomati, S. (2019). Exploring cocoa properties: is theobromine a cognitive modulator?. Psychopharmacology, 236, 561-572.
  28. Judelson, D. A., Preston, A. G., Miller, D. L., Muñoz, C. X., Kellogg, M. D., & Lieberman, H. R. (2013). Effects of theobromine and caffeine on mood and vigilance. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology, 33(4), 499-506.
  29. Mitchell, E. S., Slettenaar, M., Vd Meer, N., Transler, C., Jans, L., Quadt, F., & Berry, M. (2011). Differential contributions of theobromine and caffeine on mood, psychomotor performance and blood pressure. Physiology & behavior, 104(5), 816-822.
  30. Yu, J., Eto, M., Akishita, M., Kaneko, A., Ouchi, Y., & Okabe, T. (2007). Signaling pathway of nitric oxide production induced by ginsenoside Rb1 in human aortic endothelial cells: a possible involvement of androgen receptor. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 353(3), 764-769.
  31. Fu, Y., & Ji, L. L. (2003). Chronic ginseng consumption attenuates age-associated oxidative stress in rats. The Journal of Nutrition, 133(11), 3603-3609.
  32. Nocerino, E., Amato, M., & Izzo, A. A. (2000). The aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties of ginseng. Fitoterapia, 71, S1-S5.
  33. Fernández-Lázaro, D., Mielgo-Ayuso, J., Córdova Martínez, A., & Seco-Calvo, J. (2020). Iron and physical activity: Bioavailability enhancers, properties of black pepper (bioperine®) and potential applications. Nutrients, 12(6), 1886.
  34. Penland, J. G. (1994). Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance. Environmental health perspectives, 102(suppl 7), 65-72.
  35. Penland, J. G. (1998). The importance of boron nutrition for brain and psychological function. Biological trace element research, 66, 299-31
  36. Escalante, G., Gonzalez, A. M., St Mart, D., Torres, M., Echols, J., Islas, M., & Schoenfeld, B. J. (2022). Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and cost of alternative forms of creatine available for purchase on Amazon. com: are label claims supported by science?. Heliyon, 8(12).

Affiliate Disclosure:
The links provided may earn us a small commission at no additional cost to you if you choose to purchase the recommended product. This support allows our research and editorial team to continue providing high-quality recommendations. As a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising initiative, we are able to earn advertising fees through providing links to products on Amazon.com. Please rest assured that we only recommend high-quality products.

James de Lacey James is a professional strength & conditioning coach that works with professional and international level teams and athletes. He owns Sweet Science of Fighting, is a published scientific researcher and has completed his Masters in Sport & Exercise Science. He's combined my knowledge of research and experience to bring you the most practical bites to be applied to your combat training.