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Wrestling Strength & Conditioning (Dominate Your Opposition)

Wrestling Strength & Conditioning (Dominate Your Opposition)


Wrestling is the combat sport that benefits most from strength and conditioning. You must possess the strength to manipulate and blow through another human being of similar stature and be conditioned to repeatedly take shots to finish your opponent.

I’m giving you the best exercises, workouts, and a breakdown of the most critical physical metrics to give you the wrestling edge.

15 Best Strength & Conditioning Exercises For Wrestling

Rope Climbs

The rope climb is a highly effective exercise for wrestlers, known for its ability to develop upper body strength, grip strength, and overall endurance. This exercise strengthens the arms, shoulders, and back, making it a comprehensive workout that’s particularly beneficial for the physical demands of wrestling.

  1. Stand under the rope and reach up to grab it with both hands.
  2. Pull your body up with your arms and back while leaving your legs hanging. This is an upper body only exercise.
  3. Slide your hands one above the other as you move up, maintaining a solid grip on the rope.


Regarded as the top exercise for the lower body, the squat primarily works the glutes and quads, though its effectiveness can depend on back strength. There are several variations to explore, including back, front, and Zercher squats.

The choice among these depends on factors like your past injuries, training phase, and personal comfort with the exercise. Personally, I’m partial to the front squat, and here’s how it’s done:

  1. Position yourself under the bar, placing it across your shoulders. Choose your grip style: a clean grip (with fingers under the bar) or a cross-armed grip (arms crossed over the bar), which depends on your flexibility.
  2. Maintain high elbows to secure the bar on your shoulders. Lift the barbell from the rack and step backward.
  3. Start the squat by slightly pushing your hips back and bending your knees at the same time to lower your body straight down. Keep your chest lifted and elbows elevated during the downward movement.
  4. Your goal should be to squat as deeply as your flexibility allows, ideally until your butt reaches your calves at the lowest point.

Trap Bar Deadlifts

The deadlift is a fundamental lower body exercise in wrestling training, focusing on the glutes, hamstrings, quads, and back while enhancing grip strength.

While I’m cautious about including it in routines because heavy deadlifts can be challenging to recover from, impacting later wrestling performance, it’s undeniably a favorite for some wrestlers and, if integrated thoughtfully, can significantly augment a training program.

Many wrestlers, though, struggle with lower back issues, and deadlifting can exacerbate this. My advice leans towards using the trap bar instead of the traditional barbell, as it lessens lower back strain, and the raised handles decrease the range of motion. Here’s the technique:

  1. Position yourself inside the trap bar, placing your feet shoulder-width apart.
  2. Lower your hips and bend your knees to grasp the trap bar handles, preferably the higher ones.
  3. Keep your back straight, engage your lats, and remove any slack from the bar to create pre-lift tension.
  4. Drive through your entire foot to raise the bar from the ground.
  5. Make sure your hips and chest are lifting simultaneously. Once the bar is beyond your knees, straighten your hips and knees entirely until you’re fully upright.

Power Clean

I strongly advocate for incorporating Olympic Weightlifting techniques into wrestling training. You don’t necessarily need to focus on traditional snatch and clean & jerk; easier-to-learn weightlifting variations can effectively enhance strength and power without the need for perfect technique.

The key is rapidly moving heavy weights, bridging the gap between resistance training and wrestling practice. Here’s a guide to doing it effectively:

  1. Position yourself so that your weight is centered over the middle of your foot, with your shoulders above the bar and the barbell aligned with the middle of your foot, resting close to your shin.
  2. Aim to point your elbows outward while maintaining a broad chest, which helps engage your lats. Begin the lift by pushing with your legs.
  3. Keep the back angle from your starting position constant. Your knees should move back slightly as you lift, clearing a path for the barbell. Your hips and shoulders should elevate at the same rate.
  4. After clearing the knees, the second phase of the lift (from knee to hip) is about speeding up the bar towards the triple extension position.
  5. Stay leaning over the bar as long as possible for a straighter bar path. The bar should slide up the upper thigh as you fully extend your hips, knees, and ankles, accompanied by a strong shoulder shrug.
  6. While pulling the bar, simultaneously lower yourself under it. Your feet will shift outward slightly to catch the bar.
  7. Rapidly rotate your elbows under the bar to catch it on your shoulders, keeping your elbows as high as you can.

Snatch High Pull

The snatch high pull is my preferred exercise for developing a strong upper back in weight training. It involves a coordinated effort starting from the ground, engaging the hips and upper back muscles to drive the barbell upwards toward your chest.

This exercise is a comprehensive full-body strength builder for wrestlers, closely resembling the mat return movement akin to the power clean. Here’s the technique:

  1. Adopt a snatch grip (it’s advisable to use straps here) and prepare your starting position with a broad chest, engaged lats, and your head and eyes facing forward.
  2. Drive your legs into the ground as you stand up. When fully upright, rise onto your toes and simultaneously perform a vigorous shoulder shrug, pulling the barbell as high as possible, similar to performing an upright row.

Fat Bar Bench Press

While Powerlifters excel in bench pressing, not all their techniques may be ideal for wrestling-focused training. Adopting certain aspects, like their setup and leg drive, is beneficial, but adjusting the grip width is advisable for wrestling-specific strength. Here’s a step-by-step guide:

  1. Position yourself on the bench so that, when lying back, your feet are firmly on the ground and your head is behind the bar. Use the bar to help you slide under it, keeping your feet planted until your eyes align directly beneath the barbell. This position will stretch your quads, critical for leg engagement.
  2. Draw your shoulder blades together and tighten your glutes to create a solid base. Hold the bar with a narrower grip, about shoulder-width apart. This contrasts with Powerlifters’ wider grip, which they use to reduce the lifting range.
  3. As you lift the bar off the rack, engage in a pullover-like motion. Generate tension in your legs while bringing the bar down to your chest, keeping your elbows angled at about 45 degrees from your body.
  4. For the lift, press the bar upwards with your arms while simultaneously pushing with your legs, returning to the start position.

Push Press

The push press, a variation derived from Olympic Weightlifting, is crucial to a wrestler’s strength training routine. It involves channeling power from your legs to your hands and arms, reminiscent of many wrestling takedowns. Here’s the proper technique:

  1. Start by lifting the barbell into the front rack position, similar to the setup for a front squat. Stand with your legs straight and lower your elbows slightly for a more vertical forearm alignment, keeping your chest up to maintain an upright posture.
  2. Initiate the dip movement by shifting your weight slightly towards your heels, ensuring full foot contact with the ground. Imagine pulling a string straight down from your tailbone.
  3. Bend your knees outward somewhat, akin to a squatting motion. The dip should be shallow, akin to a quarter squat, or a bit deeper, which you’ll need to adjust based on feel.
  4. Engage in a swift, explosive upward drive at the dip’s lowest point. Push through your entire foot, ending the movement with your legs fully extended and rising onto your toes.
  5. Start pushing up with your arms as the barbell lifts off your shoulders due to the leg drive. Continue this upward thrust with your shoulders and arms as the bar moves overhead, keeping your legs straight after this point.
  6. Finish the lift with the barbell fully overhead; your head pushed forward to ensure a stable lockout position.

Barbell Row

The barbell row is a powerful strength-building exercise that places you in a challenging bent-over stance, balancing both your body weight and the barbell’s weight. Personally, I find this exercise challenging, but often the most disliked workouts yield the greatest benefits.

The dumbbell row is an excellent option for those who prefer an alternative to the barbell, especially when performed with heavy weights. Here’s the method for a barbell row:

  1. Lean forward by bending at the hips and knees to grip the barbell. Your hands should be closer together to better engage the lats.
  2. Draw the barbell towards your stomach, keeping your elbows tucked in close to your sides. When you reach the peak of the movement, contract your shoulder blades.
  3. Gently lower the barbell back to the ground, fully straightening your arms.

Towel Pull-Ups

Opting for towel pull-ups over the standard version adds a twist to your workout. While not necessary, using towels instead of a bar introduces a unique challenge, mainly targeting hand, grip, and forearm strength – all crucial for wrestling in terms of effective gripping and wrist control.

If you’re new to towel pull-ups, begin with a simple dead hang to build grip strength. Here’s how you do it:

  1. Drape two hand towels over a pull-up bar. While a single towel could work, it’s more prone to tearing, and the bar might obstruct your head, making the exercise awkward.
  2. Using one towel per hand is more effective. Fully wrap your hand around the towel, ensuring no part of it dangles from your fingers.
  3. Start by hanging to test your grip’s strength. As you pull up, bring your elbows towards your ribs, allowing your hands to rotate naturally.
  4. Then, lower yourself back down slowly until your arms are fully extended.

Jump Squats

Incorporating jumps into your routine is an excellent substitute for traditional Weightlifting exercises. It’s straightforward to start, and you can adjust the intensity by varying the weight. Options include using a barbell on your back or holding a trap bar or dumbbells at your side.

Jumps are effective in enhancing your capacity for rapid force generation, an essential skill in wrestling. Here’s a guide on how to perform them:

  1. Place the barbell on your back as you would for a back squat. Focus on bending the bar over your traps to secure a firm upper back, ensuring the bar stays in place during the jump.
  2. Start by descending into a shallow squat. The key is swiftly transitioning from the downward to the upward movement (eccentric to concentric phase), enhancing quick force production.
  3. Use your whole foot for support and propel upwards with your leg strength.
  4. As you jump, continue to push through your legs, extending onto your toes. Maintain the bar snugly on your traps as you leap. On landing, bend your knees to absorb the impact.

Romanian Deadlift

The Romanian Deadlift (RDL) is a key exercise for anyone focused on developing their legs, particularly the hamstrings. It allows for heavy loading, provides an excellent stretch for the hamstrings, and effectively builds the glutes and lower back muscles. Unlike the stiff-legged Deadlift, the RDL begins from a standing position.

To clarify, lifting the weight off the floor does not count as the first repetition of the RDL. Let’s dive into the proper technique to maximize hamstring development.

  1. Once you’ve lifted your chosen weight, stand upright with a slight bend in your knees and your chest out. Engage your lats to keep the bar close, imagining squeezing oranges under your armpits (though that juice wouldn’t be too appealing).
  2. Start the movement by arching your lower back as if you’re about to twerk and push your hips back, shifting your weight onto your heels. You can keep your chin tucked and look down for a straight spine alignment or keep your head and eyes forward, whichever feels more natural.
  3. As you push your hips back, the bar should slide down your legs without creating any gap between the bar and your legs. Maintain the same knee angle throughout.
  4. A common mistake is misjudging when to stop the descent. The moment your hips stop moving back, that’s your cue to halt the downward motion. This point is usually just above or below the knee. If the bar reaches your shins, you’re overloading your lower back rather than targeting your hamstrings.
  5. Drive your hips forward to return to the starting position and repeat the motion.

The RDL isn’t restricted to barbells; feel free to use dumbbells or kettlebells, although barbells allow for the heaviest lifting.

KB Swing

The Kettlebell (KB) swing is a dynamic hip extension exercise, offering a rapid and intense stretch in the hamstrings and glutes as the kettlebell swings back, followed by a quick hip thrust to activate these muscles.

Even a lightweight 16 kg kettlebell can activate the glutes comparably to doing hip thrusts with a load equivalent to a 10-repetition maximum.

Here’s the correct technique:

  1. Start the kettlebell swing by pushing your hips back while keeping your knees slightly bent. Then, powerfully thrust your hips forward, contracting your glutes strongly.
  2. Keep your arms relaxed throughout the movement. The momentum from your hips should determine the kettlebell’s height, not your shoulders lifting it.
  3. As the kettlebell swings back towards you, hinge at the hips to allow it to swing close to your body. Swiftly change the kettlebell’s downward movement into an upward drive.

Shadow Wrestling

Mastering shadow wrestling hinges on diligently practicing the basics within specific work-to-rest intervals. I’ve found some videos showcasing fundamental wrestling drills perfect for low- and high-intensity individual training.

Focusing on stance, movement, and offensive and defensive maneuvers in a structured or spontaneous sequence is the essence of effective practice.

The intensity of your workout depends on the physical adaptations and energy systems you aim to develop. A slower pace with shorter rest periods targets aerobic capacity, while a quicker pace with longer rest periods boosts anaerobic capacity.

If you can train with a partner, you can enhance your drills by incorporating partner exercises, allowing for a more direct application of techniques.

If you have a grappling dummy, you can practice repeated takedown drills with it.

Sandbag Carry

The bearhug carry, akin to sandbag loading, is a grueling Strongman workout that tests your entire body, from your hips to your hands. Regular practice of this exercise can significantly boost your endurance. Here’s the technique:

  1. When the sandbag is flat on the ground, slide your hands underneath each side. You might have to roll the sandbag back and forth over each hand to wrap your hands and forearms around it securely.
  2. Once your grip is set, squat down to engage as much leg power as possible when lifting the sandbag. As you rise, you may need to reposition the sandbag slightly using a small hip bump and adjusting your grip.
  3. For the grip, you have options like the monkey, seatbelt, Gable, butterfly, or S grip, depending on what feels most secure.

Farmers Walk

The farmer’s walk is an essential component of any wrestling training regimen, renowned for its intensive work on grip strength and upper back conditioning. While farmer’s handles are often preferred, kettlebells are also a viable alternative. Here’s the approach:

  1. Position yourself as you would for a deadlift, with your chosen weight (farmers handles or kettlebells) at either side. Lift the weights as in a deadlift, standing fully upright.
  2. Ensure you’re stable with the weight before you begin moving. Start walking forward, taking compact steps, all while keeping your core engaged.
  3. Continue until you’ve covered your planned distance or time, then carefully lower the weights back to the ground.
  4. Avoid rounding your back. Work against the weight to keep your posture straight and upright throughout the exercise.

Strength & Conditioning Program For Wrestlers

This example program represents the off-season when you do little to no wrestling. When you’re doing more wrestling training, the conditioning drops away, and the volume of strength training decreases.

This is week 1, taken from the Sweet Science of Fighting Off-Season Wrestling Program you can get here.

Make Gains

12-Week Off-Season Wrestling Strength & Conditioning Program

The off-season is the perfect time to work on developing insane levels of strength, power, speed, and conditioning so you can ragdoll opponents come the season.


Day 1 Full Body Strength

A1) Mobility Circuit Warm-Up x 2-3 rounds

B1) 4-Way Neck Isometric 3 x 10sec/side

B2) Bent Over Reverse Fly 3 x 10

C1) Extensive Plyo/Jump Circuit x 1

  1. Jump Squat x 10
  2. Ankle Pop x 20
  3. Lateral Squat Jump x 10
  4. Ankle Pop Fwd x 20
  5. Rolling Hop x 10
  6. Ankle Pop Bwd x 20

D1) Muscle Snatch From Hang + Floor 3 x 2+1

E1) Back Squat 3 x 8 @65% 1RM

F1) Bench Press 3 x 10 @65% 1RM

F2) Pull-Up 3 x 5-10 @7 RPE

G1) Pallof ISO Hold 3 x 20 sec/side

H1) Farmers Walk 2 x 40 m

Day 2 Conditioning

A1) Low-Intensity Steady State Cardio 1 x 30 min

Day 3 Full Body Strength

A1) Mobility Circuit Warm-Up x 2-3 rounds

B1) 4-Way Neck Flexion 3 x 10/side

B2) DB Waiter Walk 3 x 20m/side

C1) Extensive Medicine Ball Circuit x 1

D1) Overhead Press 3 x 6 @7 RPE

D2) 1-Arm DB Row 3 x 10/side @7 RPE

E1) DB Split Squat 3 x 8/leg

E2) Isometric Back Extension 3 x 20 sec

F1) DB Lateral Raise 3 x 10 @8 RPE

F2) Mini Band Spider Crawl 3 x 3

G1) Triceps Extension 3 x 10 @8 RPE

G2) Fat BB Curl 3 x 8 @8 RPE

Day 4 Conditioning

A1) Low-Intensity Steady State Cardio 1 x 30 min

Day 5 Full Body Strength

A1) Mobility Circuit Warm-Up x 2-3 rounds

B1) 4-Way Neck Isometric 3 x 10/side

B2) Cable Face Pull 3 x 15

C1) Extensive Plyo/Jump Circuit x 1

D1) Muscle Clean From Hang + Floor 3 x 2+1

E1) Trap Bar Deadlift 3 x 8 @60% 1RM

F1) Incline Bench Press 3 x 10 @65% 1RM

F2) Chin-Up 3 x 5-10 @7 RPE

G1) Hanging Knee Raise 3 x 10

H1) Hammer Pronation/Supination 3 x 10

Day 6 Conditioning

A1) Aerobic Power/Work Capacity 2 x (40sec @70% effort/20sec rest x 8). Rest 2-3 mins between sets.

Importance Of Strength & Conditioning For Wrestlers

Wrestling Strength And Conditioning

The best way to illustrate the importance of strength and conditioning for wrestlers is to compare elite and sub-elite wrestling athletes.

126 male wrestlers were categorized as top elite, elite, and amateur wrestlers, where the top elite won medals at European and/or World Championships, elite wrestlers participated in these events but didn’t win a medal, and amateurs did not compete [1].

A full battery of tests covered strength, power, and conditioning. Top elite wrestlers exhibited a 12% higher aerobic capacity than their amateur counterparts, except those in the lightweight category, where no significant difference was observed.

During maximal cycling sprint tests, elite wrestlers showed higher average and peak power in lower body performance than amateurs.

Elite wrestlers demonstrated a 12.5% and 7.5% higher peak and average power output, respectively, but only in middleweight.

The distinctions weren’t evident when comparing top elite and elite wrestlers, suggesting that beyond a certain threshold of physical capabilities, the technical and strategic skills distinguish the top-tier wrestlers.

It should be mentioned that the amateurs in this study had less training experience compared to the elite wrestlers, which could account for their lower physical capabilities.

However, these insights are based on a single study, and there’s plenty more to draw from.

Wrestling Strength Elite vs. Non-Elite

A four-time World Senior Greco-Roman wrestling champion from Iran, competing in the 55 kg category, achieved 30% more pull-ups and 8% more sit-ups than the national averages, underscoring his superior muscular endurance capabilities [2].

This wrestler also demonstrated greater strength in the back squat than national standards when adjusted for body weight, scoring 1.83 versus 1.79. On the other hand, his bench press performance was slightly lower, at 1.39, compared to the national norm of 1.48 relative to body weight.

Elite Iranian Junior wrestlers in the 55 kg weight class showed comparable strength, with averages of 1.9 and 1.4 for squat and bench press, respectively, when measured against body weight [3].

Comparing these figures with Division III American College wrestlers, elite Iranian Junior wrestlers exhibited higher squat and bench press values, suggesting that top-tier wrestlers might possess greater strength [4].

Additionally, a study on elite Junior Turkish wrestlers examined strength differences between those chosen for the National Team for the World Championships and those not selected.

Instead of traditional dynamic lifts like squats and bench presses, this study measured isometric grip, back, and leg strength [5]. Wrestlers selected for the National team showed a 10% higher grip strength, 12% more back strength, and 7% more leg strength isometrically compared to non-selected wrestlers.

In a 2015 study focusing on senior wrestlers, a comparison between elite and sub-elite competitors was made [6].

Elite wrestlers had over eight years of experience and participation in at least three international events, while sub-elite wrestlers were national finalists who hadn’t competed internationally.

Elite wrestlers recorded higher bench presses (1.1 vs. 0.9) and squats (1.4 vs. 1.1) relative to their body weight than sub-elite wrestlers.

A 2011 study aimed to identify physical factors predicting wrestling performance, comparing elite and amateur wrestlers across weight classes (lightweight, middleweight, heavyweight) [7].

Elite wrestlers had more lean mass and exhibited 12-26% greater squat and bench press strength than amateurs. Their maximum muscle power for these exercises was also significantly higher, ranging from 14-30% more than that of amateurs.

Interestingly, the key difference in muscle strength and power was not age or training experience but lean body mass.

Top-level wrestlers demonstrated superior grip strength in the lightweight and middleweight categories, increasing 6-19%, though this difference wasn’t observed in the heavyweight class. Additionally, maximal back strength in elite wrestlers surpassed that of amateurs, showing an improvement of 7-20%.

It’s clear that both dynamic and isometric strength are crucial for wrestling success and should be a focal point in a wrestler’s training regimen.

Wrestling Conditioning Elite vs. Non-Elite

Strength and Conditioning For Wrestling

In elite Junior Iranian freestyle wrestlers, aerobic and anaerobic performance measures with lower body average power spanning between 330-620 Watts and aerobic capacity averaging 50-57 ml.kg–1min–1[3].

For context, top-level endurance athletes may achieve aerobic capacities exceeding 70 ml.kg–1min–1 [8], and senior elite wrestlers often exhibit average power outputs of around 836 Watts [9]. Exceptionally, some athletes can even achieve power outputs exceeding 1000 Watts!

Junior elite wrestlers typically surpass elite taekwondo athletes in average power relative to body weight, underscoring the significance of lower body anaerobic strength in wrestling compared to striking-based combat sports [10].

Interestingly, these junior elite wrestlers’ lower body power outputs even outperform those of the German 4000m pursuit World Record holders from the 2000 Olympics, emphasizing the crucial role of lower body power generation [11].

An early study comparing elite and non-elite junior wrestlers in the USA identified peak anaerobic power of the arms and legs, relative to body weight, as a critical differentiator. In contrast, aerobic capacity wasn’t as decisive [13].

But how do top-tier senior wrestlers fare against their less experienced peers?

Elite Spanish wrestlers competing internationally demonstrated 11% higher peak power than their national-level counterparts [12]. However, elite wrestlers only showed a marginal advantage in aerobic capacity over sub-elite competitors.

A comprehensive 2011 study involving 92 wrestlers from five countries, categorized by experience level and body weight, stands out in this research field [14].

Elite wrestlers in this study had significant experience and participation in major European and/or World Championships, while amateurs were national finalists.

In the Wingate test, elite wrestlers in all weight classes showed superior absolute and relative upper-body average and peak power.

The noticeable difference in anaerobic power could be attributed to the 3-5% greater lean mass found in elite wrestlers, which correlates strongly with anaerobic peak and mean power in such tests [15].

A more recent review of 71 research articles encompassing 2,124 wrestlers aimed to identify key physiological traits of wrestlers [16]. Key findings include:

  • Wrestlers’ VO2max levels are on par with those in karate, taekwondo, and amateur boxing, highlighting the need for a strong aerobic foundation.
  • A high level of aerobic capacity is pivotal for elite wrestling.
  • Wrestlers exhibit higher anaerobic power than judo, amateur boxing, and karate athletes, though their anaerobic capacity is similar.
  • Elite wrestlers have greater upper and lower body anaerobic power and capacity than non-elites.

While a well-developed aerobic base is crucial, it’s not the sole factor differentiating elite from non-elite wrestlers.

The research consistently points out that the ability to generate high levels of anaerobic power and capacity is a hallmark of elite wrestling performance. Improving this requires substantial fat-free mass and muscular strength and power.

Should You Do Strength & Conditioning In-Season?

This is the biggest mistake made by parents with their high school kids and by “lazy” college wrestlers. Zach Even-Esh talks about his conversations with wrestling parents because they want to pull their kids from strength & conditioning in-season.

Never stop strength and conditioning in-season. As the season progresses, you will become weak and out of shape, increasing your risk of injury.

You may not need to perform extra conditioning as you compete weekly or more. But you must find time to lift weights. Once or twice a week, depending on your wrestling competition schedule. Here’s an example of how a twice-per-week wrestling in-season program could look:

Day 1

A1) Front Squat 3 x 3 @80% 1RM

B1) Fat Close Grip Bench Press 4 x 2 @83% 1RM

B2) Weighted Towel Pull-Up 4 x 5-6 @8 RPE

C1) Sandbag Carry 2 x 20-40m

Day 2

A1) Medicine Ball Scoop Toss 3 x 3

B1) Power Clean + Push Press 2 x 2+2, 1 x 2+1, 1 x 1+1

C1) DB Jump Squat 2 x 5 @10% bodyweight

C2) Explosive Incline Push-Up 2 x 5


Wrestling strength & conditioning doesn’t need to be complicated. It’s about consistency and doing just enough to stimulate gains while keeping you fresh enough to wrestle.

It’s a challenging balancing act of trial and error. Or you can subscribe to the Sweet Science of Fighting Underground and have the programs on your phone ready for all your strength & conditioning sessions.


1. Demirkan, E., Koz, M., Kutlu, M., & Favre, M. (2015). Comparison of physical and physiological profiles in elite and amateur young wrestlers. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research29(7), 1876-1883.

2. Mirzaei, B., Curby, D. G., Barbas, I., & Lotfi, N. (2011). Anthropometric and physical fitness traits of four-time World Greco-Roman wrestling champion in relation to national norms: A case study.

3. Mirzaei, B., Curby, D. G., Rahmani-Nia, F., & Moghadasi, M. (2009). Physiological profile of elite Iranian junior freestyle wrestlers. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research23(8), 2339-2344.

4. Schmidt, W. D., Piencikowski, C. L., & Vandervest, R. E. (2005). Effects of a competitive wrestling season on body composition, strength, and power in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III college wrestlers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research19(3), 505.

5. Demirkan, E., Ünver, R., Kutlu, M., & Mitat, K. O. Z. (2012). The comparison of physical and physiological characteristics of junior elite wrestlers. Beden E?itimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi6(2), 138-144.

6. Morán-Navarro, R., Valverde-Conesa, A., López-Gullón, J. M., la Cruz-Sánchez, D., & Pallarés, J. G. (2015). Can balance skills predict Olympic wrestling performance?. Journal of Sport & Health Research7(1).

7. García-Pallarés, J., López-Gullón, J. M., Muriel, X., Díaz, A., & Izquierdo, M. (2011). Physical fitness factors to predict male Olympic wrestling performance. European journal of applied physiology111(8), 1747-1758.

8. Hue, O., Gallais, D. L., Chollet, D., & Prefaut, C. (2000). Ventilatory threshold and maximal oxygen uptake in present triathletes. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology25(2), 102-113.

9. Jakovljevi?, D. K., Eric, M., Jovanovic, G., Dimitric, G., Cupic, M. B., & Ponorac, N. (2018). Explosive muscle power assessment in elite athletes using wingate anaerobic test. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte24(2), 107-111.

10. Lin, W. L., Yen, K. T., Lu, C. Y. D., Huang, Y. H., & Chang, C. K. (2006). Anaerobic capacity of elite Taiwanese Taekwondo athletes. Science & sports21(5), 291-293.

11. SCHUMACHER, Y. O., & MUELLER, P. (2002). The 4000-m team pursuit cycling world record: theoretical and practical aspects. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise34(6), 1029-1036.

12. Morán-Navarro, R., Valverde-Conesa, A., López-Gullón, J. M., la Cruz-Sánchez, D., & Pallarés, J. G. (2015). Can balance skills predict Olympic wrestling performance?. Journal of Sport & Health Research7(1).

13. Horswill, C. A., Scott, J. R., & Galea, P. (1989). Comparison of maximum aerobic power, maximum anaerobic power, and skinfold thickness of elite and non-elite junior wrestlers. International Journal of Sports Medicine10(03), 165-168.

14. García-Pallarés, J., López-Gullón, J. M., Muriel, X., Díaz, A., & Izquierdo, M. (2011). Physical fitness factors to predict male Olympic wrestling performance. European journal of applied physiology111(8), 1747-1758.

15. Vardar, S. A., Tezel, S., Öztürk, L., & Kaya, O. (2007). The relationship between body composition and anaerobic performance of elite young wrestlers. Journal of sports science & medicine6(CSSI-2), 34.

16. Chaabene, H., Negra, Y., Bouguezzi, R., Mkaouer, B., Franchini, E., Julio, U., & Hachana, Y. (2017). Physical and physiological attributes of wrestlers: an update. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research31(5), 1411-1442.

James de Lacey James is a professional strength & conditioning coach that works with professional and international level teams and athletes. He owns Sweet Science of Fighting, is a published scientific researcher and has completed his Masters in Sport & Exercise Science. He's combined my knowledge of research and experience to bring you the most practical bites to be applied to your combat training.